Bio gas is made from organic waste matter after it is decomposed. The decomposition breaks down the organic matter, releasing various gases. The main gases released are methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide. Bacteria carry out the decomposition or fermentation.

The conditions for creating bio gas has to be anaerobic that is without any air and in the presence of water.
The organic waste matter is generally animal or cattle dung, plant wastes, etc. These waste products contain carbohydrates, proteins and fat material that are broken down by bacteria. The waste matter is soaked in water to give the bacteria a proper medium to grow. Absence of air or oxygen is important for decomposition because bacteria then take oxygen from the waste material itself and in the process break them down.

There are two types of bio gas plants that are used in India. These plants mainly use cattle dung called “gobar” and are hence called gobar gas plant. Generally a slurry is made from cattle dung and water, which forms the starting material for these plants.
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